Pediatric Dermatology is a branch of medicine that deals with skin disorders related to children. A pediatric dermatologist is a specialist doctor who will treat children (newborns through adolescents) with skin disorders.
The skin serves as a critical barrier to infection and dehydration. Any disease or impairment of the skin’s normal function can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, especially in infants, as they are more vulnerable to heat loss, dehydration and infection
Some of the common skin conditions that affect children are:
Eczema: Atopic dermatitis (Eczema) usually develops in early childhood and is more common in people who have a family history of this condition. The main symptom is the appearance of a rash usually on the arms and behind the knees, but it can also appear in any part of the body. Treatment includes avoiding soap and other irritants. Some creams or ointments will provide relief from the itching.
Cradle Cap: This skin condition may occur as a result of excessive oil production by skin glands surrounding hair follicles. The main symptom is the presence of scales on the scalp. Cradle cap usually clears up within a few months on is own. A mild shampoo can help loosen and remove the scales. A medicated shampoo can help in severe cases.
Transient Neonatal Pustular Melanosis: It is a benign idiopathic skin condition mainly seen in newborns. It has distinctive features characterized by vesicles, superficial pustules, and pigmented macules. The lesions of this skin condition might be present right from birth.
Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum: It is a common rash in neonates. It appears in up to half of the newborns carried to term, usually within 2–5 days after the birth. It does not occur outside the neonatal period. This skin disease is characterized by Blotchy red spots on the skin with overlying white or yellow papules or pustules. These lesions might be few or numerous. The eruption typically resolves within the first two weeks of life. Individual lesions will appear and disappear within minutes or hours frequently.
Miliaria/Heat Rash/Prickly Heat: This is a heat rash is common during hot, humid weather. It might appear as blisters or red lumps and can cause itchiness or a prickly feeling. Heat rash usually goes away on its own. Use of fans and lightweight clothing can help.
Milia: It develops when tiny skin flakes become trapped in small pockets near the surface of the skin. Although milia can develop at any age, they're most common among newborns. The tiny white bumps most commonly appear on a baby's nose, chin or cheeks. Milia usually disappear on their own in a few weeks in newborns.
Impetigo: This mainly affects infants and children. The main symptom is the presence of red sores around the nose and mouth. The sores rupture and ooze for a few days, then form a yellow-brown crust. Antibiotics can help reduce the infection and also prevent spreading to others.
Neonatal acne: This baby acne is a common, usually temporary skin condition that develops on a baby’s face or body. It might lead to tiny red or white bumps or pimples.
Diaper Rash: The main symptom is a red rash on the buttocks. In severe cases, the symptoms can be fever and widespread rash. Most rashes start to improve after a few days of at-home care with over-the-counter ointment and more frequent nappy changes. If it doesn't start to improve or if fever and rash develop, a visit to a doctor is required.
Mongolian spots: It is also known as Slate Gray Nevi, is a type of pigmented birthmark. They’re formally called congenital dermal melanocytosis. These marks typically appear on the buttocks or lower back, but may also be found on the arms or legs. They are generally present at birth or develop soon after. These birthmarks are non-cancerous and present no health danger.